Poultry has always been a lucrative business for many individuals and companies. The reason is that lots of individuals eat poultry products which can be egg or chicken. In addition, most hospitals recommend that you eat chicken as it is very nutritious and is classified as white meat, which is said to be better than red meat.
The increased demand for poultry products in Nigeria has greatly reduced supply. As a result, the number of poultry reared in Nigeria is not enough for the population, thereby leading to the import of poultry products. This is one reason a lot of people go into the poultry farming business.
Unlike other businesses, though very lucrative, poultry farming is a critical kind of business and must be done cautiously to avoid making mistakes that will cost you a lot of resources.
Many people ask the questions like; How do I start a poultry farm? How much is needed to start a poultry farming business? Is the poultry farming business lucrative? This article will answer all these questions.
What is Poultry Farming?
Poultry farming refers to animal production related to the rearing of birds such as chicken, turkey, and ducks, primarily for meat and egg. Chickens are reared in very large quantities in most poultry farms.
Here, we will be talking about chicken rearing and production.
Step on How to Start a Poultry Farming Business in Nigeria
The following are steps on how to start a poultry farming business in Nigeria:
- Learn Poultry Rearing from an Expert
- Choose a suitable location
- Decide the type of chicken rearing you want to do
- Construction of Poultry House
- Purchase of poultry equipment
- Purchase of Day Old Chicks
- Brooding, Vaccination, and Feeding
1. Learn Poultry Rearing from an Expert
Poultry farming is a very delicate and critical business and should be approached with full caution. Due to the nature of work and risk involved in poultry farming, one must know to be well versed in the farm’s operations to be successful.
Approach a farmer that already owns a poultry farm and spend about one to three months learning the nitty-gritty in management of birds from birth to maturity stage. This includes practices such as brooding, vaccination, feeding, etc. This will help you to understand the best practices while running your poultry farm.
2. Choose a Suitable Location
Purchase or renting of land is the first step in the poultry farming business. If you already have a piece of land in a nice location, you don’t have to bother. Your poultry farm should not be located where residential houses are to avoid being a nuisance to people around.
However, nearness to road and nearness to market should also be part of the reasons for acquiring the property. In addition, the land should be located in leveled ground with proper drainage to avoid waterlogging during the rainy season as birds do not like a wet environment.
3. Decide the type of Poultry Farm you want to go into
The next important step is to decide which type of poultry farming you want to go into. There are two major types of chicken poultry farming which are
Broilers: These are poultry raised mainly for meat production. They are raised for commercial purposes and usually reach slaughter weight between four to seven weeks of age.
Layers: This refers to poultry that is reared for the primary purpose of egg production. This set of birds are allowed to stay for a longer time than the broilers, and they are fed special food types to enable a steady production of eggs.
4. Construction of Poultry House
The construction of a poultry cage or house is very important in poultry farming because it serves as a shelter for the birds. While constructing the poultry house, special consideration should be given to ventilation. You should properly ventilate the house to allow for free inflow and outflow of air. This will ensure that birds have sufficient air for respiration and the interior is not damp.
You should also consider the direction of the sun to avoid the sun pointing directly to the house. This will heat the house, and birds may be uncomfortable. Housing location is preferred to be sited under trees or in a cool, dry place with sufficient ventilation and average sunlight to ensure maximum output from the birds.
The building should be well sealed from pest infestation, and other rodents and animals such as snakes, squirrels, etc. Snakes are known to kill birds, and rats are also known to disturb birds at night. Therefore, the surroundings of the poultry house should be well sealed and fumigated to prevent these animals from having access to the farm.
5. Purchase of Poultry Equipment
Following the construction of the poultry house is the purchase of poultry equipment. This equipment includes feeders, a Water pot, Charcoal stove, heater, incubator, laying nest, etc.
It would be best to do a proper market survey on these items to determine the best quality before purchasing. This is to ensure that purchased materials last for a long time and satisfies their purpose.
6. Purchase of Day Old Chicks
Procure for the best dealers and buy day-old chicks from them. Ensure that the birds are healthy and have been well nurtured from birth. Avoid buying unhealthy chicks, as this may be the beginning of loss in your poultry business.
7. Brooding and Vaccination
This usually takes place at the early stage of chicken rearing. The chicks are usually put in a nursery, where they are packed together and exposed to heat early in their lives. This ensures that the chicks are placed at an optimal body temperature until they can regulate their body temperature by themselves.
Brooding gives the chick a strong immune system and also ensures the proper growth of body tissues. Brooding for broilers is usually done during the first one to two weeks after hatching.
Vaccination of the chicks is also done to ensure that they develop a stronger immune system and are resistant to certain diseases that might attack them. Vaccination should be done by a well-trained animal scientist or farm attendant and should be done on all birds.
The poultry is being fed with well-combined feeds that will help yield maximum growth. They are also given vitamins to aid their growth and ensure they are strong enough and mature for slaughter. Feeding continues for three to five weeks after you remove them from the heating room.
Birds are allowed to roam within their house to enable their bones to be strong enough for movement. Clean drinking water should also be provided for the birds and keep the poultry house clean and hygienic at all times.
9. Sales and Marketing
Broilers get matured between 4 to 7 weeks of age. At this stage, the birds are well grown and ready for slaughter. Birds should be taken out from the farm and put in smaller cages to the market.
You can find prepared markets at eateries, restaurants, grills, and even the local markets where individuals purchase for home use. The cost of each chicken is dependent on the total cost of production, cost of feeds, and the size of each matured bird, etc. Broilers may cost at any amount between 1500 and 5,000 Naira.
How Much Does It Cost To Start A Poultry Farming Business In Nigeria?
The cost of starting a poultry farming business in Nigeria is dependent on individual location and other factors such as cost of equipment, cost of feed, and cost of chicks.
Usually, during peak periods such as the festive period, the price of feeds tends to be on the rice while the price of day-old chicks reduces. However, at other periods, the price of feeds tends to decrease, while the cost of chicks might as well be on the high side.
Conduct a feasibility study on your location to know the exact price of equipment and the number required for the size of the farm you intend to build. This will give you the precise cost of owning a poultry farm. However, from 100,000 Naira to 500,000 Naira will be enough to start a poultry farming business.